On the dawn of May 15 and 24, 2018, the armed forces of Federal Somalia waged unexpected attacks on Somaliland Republic armed forces based at Tuka-raq, which is 65 Km within Somaliland border. Somalia’s forces attacked through the front of Puntland Administration of Federal Somalia whilst the Somaliland Republic was busy celebrating its 27th anniversary of regaining its independence from Somalia achieved on June 26, 1960. Somaliland forces repelled both attacks and inflicted heavy losses on the invading enemy forces.
The land of Harti People in Sool and Eastern Sanaag is located within Somaliland British colonial borders. It is integral and inseparable part of independent Somaliland. Thus, there is no “disputed land or territories” in Somaliland as some may claim preposterously. Somaliland does not accept the idea of “disputed land in Somaliland” as any other African country would not accept to call part of its territory “disputed land”.
Puntland Administration of Federal Somalia dreams to reunite Harti people, sub-clan of Darod, of Somaliland, Somalia, and Ethiopia to create Harti country in the Horn of Africa. Would the United Nations or Africa accept to create Fulani country by reuniting the Fulanis of Mali, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, and Cameroon or Tuareg country by reuniting the Tuaregs of Senegal, Nigeria, Mali, and Niger? The answer is: No. likewise, Africa would never accept that the Puntland Administration of Federal Somalia reunites Hartis of Somaliland, Somalia, and Ethiopia to create a tribal crisis in the Horn of Africa. There is no country in Africa or in any other continent whose population is based on single clan or lineage as Puntland Administration of Somalia claims blindly.
If the United Nations or Organization of African Union do not respect and recognize Somaliland borders, emerging from colonial borders as any other African country, then the territorial integrity of each African country would be questionable and would be at risk of dispute and continental disintegration through endless clan wars.
The political map of Africa that shows its independent countries had not been made by United Nations, by African Union, or by African nations. It is the result of the European Colonial Occupation that invaded African Continent at the end of the 19th century and divided it up into territories with colonial borders for their own political sphere of influence. When leaving Africa, mainly in the 1960s, the Europeans based the independence and diplomatic recognition of all African emerging countries including Somaliland on their colonial borders inherited from the colonial powers. The borders of African independent states had been drawn by the colonial powers of Europe at the end of the 19th century, mainly during The Partition of Africa held in Berlin in 1884. Likewise, all the current borders of Asia and South America also emerged from colonial borders drawn mainly by Britain, France, and Spain and were all recognized too on their colonial borders.
Somaliland is located in the Horn of Africa. It lies between the 08°00′ – 11°30′ parallel North of the Equator and between 42°30′ – 49°00′ Meridian East of Greenwich. It is bordered by the Red Sea to the North, Djibouti to the West, Ethiopia to the South, and Somalia to the East. Somaliland has a coastline with the majority lying along the Gulf of Aden (Red Sea). The country is slightly larger than England, with an area of 137, 600 km² (53,100 sq. miles) and with a population around 4 million.
According to the unique history of the continent of Africa, an African country is recognized as an independent nation when it meets or fulfills the following four (4) requirements:
- That it is colonized separately
2. That it has its own colonial borders
3. That it had an official proclamation of independence granted by the colonizing power on specific date
- That it Fulfills the Montevideo Convention Requirements on the Rights and Duties of States held on December 26, 1933, which stated that the state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications:
. a permanent population.
. a defined country
. a government
. a capacity to enter into relations with the other states.
Somaliland has perfectly fulfilled the four required conditions to be recognized as an independent country and that is why it was recognized on June 26, 1960, by the United Nations and many countries of the international community
The borders of Somalia, Somaliland, Djibouti or any other Africa country have the same international status and legitimacy because they all had been drawn by European Colonial powers. Anyone who opposes the legitimacy of Somaliland borders, its statehood, its independence, and its diplomatic recognition is challenging the borders and sovereignty of all African independent states (54 states) whose borders also rose from their colonial borders.
African borders are based on land only and not on lineage or clans. There are no clan borders or clan states in Africa or anywhere else in this world. There are only national land-based borders in Africa whose nations consist of many tribes or clans that share common borders and sovereignty.
The following African clans clearly show of how same African clans are distributed over different countries. The inhabitance or residence of some African clans is as follows:
Fulani Clan: This clan inhabits in Mali, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroon etc.
Tuareg Clan: This clan has inhabitance in Senegal, Nigeria, Mali, Niger etc.
Lunda Clan: This clan inhabits in Congo, Zambia, and Angola.
Yoruba Clan: This clan has inhabitance in Nigeria, Benin, and Togo.
Maasai Clan: This clan resides in Kenya, and Tanzania.
Afar Clan: This clan inhabits in Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Djibouti
Gabooye Clan: This clan inhabits in Somaliland, Somalia, Ethiopia
Berber Clan: This clan has inhabitance in Morroco, Tunisia, Libya, Algeria.
Isaaq Clan: This clan inhabits in Somaliland, Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti
Samaroon Clan: This tribe inhabits in Somaliland, Ethiopia, and Djibouti.
Hawiye Clan: This clan inhabits in Somalia, Kenya, and Ethiopia.
Darood Clan: This clan inhabits in Somalia, Somaliland, Kenya, Ethiopia
Rahanwein Clan: This clan has inhabitance in Somalia, Ethiopia, and Kenya.
Essa Clan: This clan inhabits in Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Somaliland.
The internal security, stability, and peace of Africa rest on respecting, recognizing, and implementing its current borders that rose from colonial borders. If an African country would claim the clan and its land located in another African country, the continent would fall to endless devastating, bloody clan wars, violence, and anarchy. The African continent would not exist as we know it today. The peace and stability of African states depend on respecting and recognizing colonial borders. United Nations and African Union should not allow any country like Somalia or any other country to redraw African colonial borders to avoid the danger of plunging the continent into endless clan wars and anarchy.
African Union and African leaders claim that if Somaliland is recognized, it will shift or change the borders of current African independent states inherited from colonial powers leading to instability and political unrest in Africa. If that claim were true, why did not the recognition of South Sudan and Eritrea change the borders of Africa and cause instability and political unrest in African continent? Senegal and Gambia founded federation or union in February 1982 calling it
Senegambia. That union was dissolved in September 1989 after a disagreement and each country regained its original independence and diplomatic recognition without changing the borders of Africa. So, why denying Somaliland of regaining that independence and recognition it had before the union with Somalia? Somaliland diplomatic recognition does not need any approval from Somalia as any other African country did not need the approval of its independence and diplomatic recognition from any other African country.
Somaliland is not a secessionist or breakaway region from Somalia but Somaliland just withdrew from the union with Somalia after Somalia grossly violated the union and committed injustices and atrocities in Somaliland between 1960-1991. If Nyanza Province of Kenya, or Arusha Region of Tanzania, or Puntland province of Somalia break away from their own respective countries, that
would be secessionists, separatists, or breakaways and that would change or shift the colonial borders of Africa inherited from colonial powers and that would create instability and political unrest in the continent of Africa because these provinces share a history and colonial borders with their own countries.
The declaration of Organization of African Unity (O.A.U) in 1964 on African Borders was the formal acceptance of the existing colonial borders inherited from colonial powers on which independence and recognition of each African country were based including Somaliland. That declaration had nothing to do with unification, federations, and unions between two or more African countries like the failed union between Somaliland and Somalia formed unthoughtfully and hastily in 1960. A union or federation could be dissolved anytime if the sides disagree each restoring and retaining its original independence and borders. That declaration reinforces the rightful claim of Somaliland to be recognized as an independent nation based on its colonial borders. That declaration does not prevent Somaliland from withdrawing from the union with Somalia and restoring its independence and diplomatic recognition achieved on June 26, 1960. If Uganda and Kenya share union today and after some time they disagree and dissolve that union, each would still be independent, recognized nation on its own colonial borders
Somaliland and Somalia are not the first two countries in this world whose union dissolved or ceased to exist. The Soviet Union that had 15 Socialist Republics created by the Bolshevik Revolution led by Lenin in 1917 broke up after social upheavals and political discontent ended its existence peacefully in 1989 with new countries emerging from it such as Georgia, Ukraine, Armenia, Uzbekistan, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia etc. They are all recognized by the UN and the international community on the basis of their original borders existing before the union. The Federation of former Republic of Yugoslavia that had 8 countries broke up too after bloody civil wars between 1991-1995 and new countries such as Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo etc. emerged from its ashes. All these countries are also recognized diplomatically too for their original borders existing before the federation. This shows that the unity among countries that share a union is not sacred anymore if they have a disagreement. So, Somaliland Republic deserves international diplomatic recognition based on its British colonial borders.
The United Nations and Africa Union must condemn the aggression of Federal Somalia against the Somaliland Republic on May 15, 2018, to assure the stability and peace of Africa.
Federal Somalia is sternly warned that peace and good neighborly relations between the Somaliland Republic and Federal Somalia will only depend on respecting and recognizing the border between Somaliland and Somalia.
Ibrahim Hassan Gagale
OpEd: Recall Of Berbera Oil Storage Facilities – A Major Milestone
Written by: Abdirahman Aideed
Majority of the public in Somaliland welcomed and aired their congratulations for the president of Somaliland (H.E. President Muse Behi) for his remarkable decision, August 2018, to recall the national oil storage facilities in Berbera from the hands of the currently run private company(ies) to remain under the management of the government.
The former president Silanyo government tabled a resolution/motion to the parliament in August 2015 to approve the privatization of the Oil Storage Facilities to private companies. The parliament objected the motion with majority ruling vote. However the government has overruled and implemented the decision with presidential degree by October 2015. A period of about three years of being run the property by the private companies, there were number of arguments in the public domain, as such arrangement tempted a number of risks to the public interest including slack quality control of the petroleum coming into the country and national security as well. This debate heated up in April 2018 when a sub-standard petrol offloaded into the storage facility that has affected many vehicles as owners suffered heavy unaccounted financial loss for repairing the damaged machines by that poor quality fuel, and that is why the public are clapping for the action of the president. In socio-economic perspective we can mark it as “the SECOND MILESTONE” for President Behi, since he come into power.
Dear reader, let me remind you also the FIRST MILESTONE for President Muse Behi Abdi, which has happen in March 2018, , when a presidential letter/order released by the Minister of Public Works, Mr. Qambi, in a press conference. The minister explained in detail the message from the president, informing all government respected offices about the suspension of any tenure awarded for the natural seaway land in Berbera (aka Raasiga). This land of about 3.5 Km into the sea waters is a natural inland that remain untouched for centuries and safeguarded as national property by all subsequent administrations that ruled Berbera in history. The Raasiga is believed to be the comparative advantage that gave Berbera to have the importance of being a strategic sea port for centuries. The Behi’s predecessor of Mr. Silanyo government awarded property ownership deeds of Raasiga to business people and individuals that had an influence in the ruling regime. President’s decision of retaining the rights of Raasiga was also commended by the public and termed as the FIRST MILESTONE for President Muse Behi accomplishments of recollecting the national properties that has been privatized by those in power, before him, to themselves as beneficiaries and their respective closer friends, relatives and bogus political allies that later vanished.
Terminating buddy based contracts in Egal International airport and ensuring such diverted incomes go directly to the national income box was also another key THIRD MILESTONE for MBA. Though there are still some government duties that are franchised to private hands to, for instance, print various national tax stamps and logos etc., the majority of the public regarded this third milestone as the beginning of empowering tax collecting departments and upholding the government reputation.
Recovering the national properties and income sources is not an easy task and there are number of reasons for making the task challenging, these will include: First, prominent figures from the former ruling executive power under H.E. Silanyo are believed to have vested interests in those privatized projects. Secondly, such finger-pointed de-facto officers conserve deep-rooted support to a major constituencies that was among Behi’s voting centers, which has contributed President Behi’ s landslide victory to come to the Power House and hence touching below the belt of those individuals will implicate Behi’s political support and jeopardize for his intentions in next term elections. Thirdly, the opposition sustained a continuous pressure, which sometimes seems embedded with number of spicy ingredients on the President to weaken his political support status. All these and plus are putting the president in a situation with least options to take drastic corrective actions in the system, and he may even sometimes opt sitting on the burning pans, despite being fiery and heatening.
Back to the topic, the Nationalised Oil Storage Complex in Berbera, implications are not easy either. This Presidential decision is coming in a situation where already other private companies are given permits and allowed to establish and construct their own oil/Fuel storages in the fuel port quarters by former Silanyo government. Envisaging such a trend it is understandable that privatised oil storage facilities constructions would ignite uneasy market competition with government owned facilities. The current allied company that was recently running the government facilities, could also demand to establish their own private Oil Storage facilities, because that path is already open, they can also use to store their imported supplies to privately owned storage facilities. This cites the scenario of the unchanged status quo of the national banks of the government in compare to the fast developed private banks., which could mean government oil storage facilities will same be only used by the government, should they not become dynamic and competitive in the market. In that regard the re-nationalized government Oil Storage facilities perhaps can only commercially survive if the government retains the right of becoming the sole proprietor of such giant facilities in the country, like the norm and practice are in the region, especially in the port of Berbera, while oil importers will only be users of the facilities. See more on this in an earlier article on the same subject http://hadhwanaag.ca/detail.aspx?id=221181
However, there are number of awaited milestones, from the new president to accomplish:
- To recall the reserve lands for the port and free zone expansion, aka Noobiyadda area, as was the plan in history.
- To implement the issued order regarding the Raasiga area
- To initiate a law, or issue presidential degree of making clear demarcation of the state properties that only the government can own, run and manage vs. what properties the public or private sector can be engaged and to what level. For instance, can an individual or private company retain the ownership of (a) a sea port? (b) An airport? (c) An Oil well? (d) A mineral well/cave? (e) City water supply? (f) Fuel Storage complex at import/export hubs? (g)Export livestock health check quarantines/Mahjars? …….just to mention few.
In my view, I think such resources and facilities can only be run by a government on behalf of the ownership of the state.
Baadigoob: Jawaabta Goobjoogayaasha Caalamiga ah
Halkan Kala eeg Maqaal uu qoray Mr. Michael Walls, Madaxa Goobjoogayaasha Caalamiga ah ee Doorashadii Madaxtooyada Somaliland ee 2017kii. Farriintan ayuu Michael ku caddaynayaa arrimo muddadan dambeba dhex wareegayay baraha bulshada iyo tuhuno lagu faafiyay muuqaal lagu baahiyay baraha bulshada oo la yidhaahdo “Baadigoob”.
Halkan kala deg Maqaalka oo Faahfaahsan:
OpEd: The Lost Intellectuals
They live in a place where the tribalism is the major dream that the leaders in their country kill to hunt what they want to find. They live in a place where the only opportunity they can mostly get is a life that is related to their heredity family prosperity or clan based opportunity that they cannot learn anything more; where an international NGO/INGO’s go after their rights, because there are no more opportunity they can get. Every new authority promise to develop somewhere or something but after they get the lead position they tend to spent their time and money many vehicles and new houses for billions of money. Where none of them is aware about even the name of their country; or the passport of their own country.
In each year they try to improve and support their society just for dream; they defeat their government on all the social media for hope; they support every one promise unity of their community and developing of their countries production because of hope; in each year of election they expect new change and support for bright future but after another few years of dream and wishes they nearly lost all their dream; and they lost like nothing until their sight is dark in every other way of dream.
The youth which are almost finish their first generation in a dream seasons; were there are more politicians but their sense of politician is not rather of having a big houses; cars and eat good food at homes; where even they do not think about how they find for it; and they are mostly from outside of the country and they send their children to the most popular university and they send their family and wives to the most beautiful countries and they just visit for rest; while they block the right of the street children. The mother that don’t sleep because of worry; gets up early in the morning or midnight around 3:am to feed her an orphan child; or the single mother that her husband lost any opportunity to have a work or don’t even consider his children anymore and busy for feeding his self-non-sense grass like goats all the day and night.
The right of the child in 20 years of age who is already lost in African coastal area and the sea animal have hunted him; most beautiful African girls that lost their most important body in the African coastal and their hunger poor mothers faces is unknown because of sadness and worry; which has many of them effected with diseases in the coastal area; all this does not make any sense to our politicians until his children are safe and in beautiful country that a leader of his age, mind and power to make it a country that everybody likes it; a youth have a leader who campaign to support them and improve their future life but cannot even have any dream to step forward; no more foot print; no real dream; a youth which have a coastal area of more than 360 feet who do not know how to live for it and have no power to learn and cannot across where their families are from because of tribalism and lack of leadership.
A youth which cannot learn any more about government because of their heredity leadership tribalism; a youth which are just separate because of where their families are from and cannot make a change any more; a youth which their maturity is after 30 years old and death for worry diseases and do not know where to go and what to do even in that age; a youth which their intellectuals got mad after more think and lack of leadership; a youth which have the most powerful mentally and physically but cannot do any more because of leadership situation; a youth which have not any role model; a youth which have no motivation; a youth which cannot realize their dream; a youth which are ready to change their people, country, and mind but have not any support; a youth which have no power to eliminate to bring new ideas; a youth who live in a country while the leaders are the business men’s, doctors, telecommunications, and everybody of their families have a department of the authority without any humanity.
The question doesn’t the street child is citizen? Why educative citizen cannot do a work that an international citizen take a lot of money in the country? Why the community are separate and not support each other? Isn’t that because of selfish campaign tribalism? Why they teach the others out of their nation where they from I mean which clan they are? Is it the leadership? If it’s not the leading why the religion make equal brotherhood on all the different individuals that become Muslim when the prophet (csw) was spreading the religion? If it is not then why all American people mention that they are just American from that city? Why and why?
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