Connect with us


The United Nations’ Botched Activities: Politicized Reports, Humanitarianised Exaggerations and Standards of Misconduct in Somaliland



The widespread criticism of the United Nations’ organizations mainly focuses on the absence of the standard of conduct and mandatory integrity of their activities. Critics argue that the UN Organizations’ presences in volatile Africa, Asia and Latin America invent a new form of destabilization within the social structure of those societies.

Another explanation explores that such misconduct results in an uncertainty of stock market failures, devaluation of currency rates and ruins the balances of economic trade between states. This is because the intergovernmental organisations’ standards of conduct and integrity are faultily managed.

For example, the derived standard of conducts and manuals of the integrity of UN principles are not met, and the reason is a mystery of human error. Article 101, paragraph 3 of the UN Charter states the 5.1 of the UN Staff codes of conduct and organisational ethics of integrity. The values of the reassuring demeanours administer these codes set out in the United Nations Staff Member Regulations and other clerical issuances.

The current UN and INGOs establishments disenfranchised and turned into a blind eye to the developments of Somaliland – regarding democracy, freedoms of speech, relative stability and the governance systems. I personally interpret this as the twofold phenomenon. Firstly, the lack of skills and educational shortages of Somaliland Civil Servants allowed the misconduct of the UN liaison office operations. Secondly, the failure of UN staff members to conform with onuses under the Charter of the United Nations as shown in the administrative issuances and articles of global civil servant administered by UNV Conditions of Service standard of conducts are in complete turmoil.

The lack of proficiency, educational abilities and the shortage of skills of Somaliland bureaucrats will let the UN and other INGOs to manipulate the foreign policy of Somaliland. These organizations have never reported Somaliland’s proud tradition of engagement with the international community. As I have mentioned several times, United Nations Organizations singling out Somaliland by exaggerating minor incidents and/or creating fabrications for the sake of enlarging their interest oriented humanitarian projects.

Currently, the UN reports prevent the global member states of the world to address both Somaliland’s problems and successes. For instance, the devastations of the Cyclone Sagar that killed more than 50 people, destroyed hundreds of shelters and displaced hundreds of thousands of people has not yet well reported. In a ways that is different from Cyclone Sagar the UN organizations politicized and exaggerated the four hours war of Tukaraq in their reports.

The United Nations fact-finding missions inadequately investigated the aftermath of Sool regions. The UN reported that 150,000 people were displaced because of the four hours fighting with the 14km uninhabited land. On the contrary, the Population Estimation Survey in 2014 conducted by UNFPA stated that Sool’s total population estimate in urban areas is only 120, 993. Tukaraq is an urban area in the explanation of UNFPA Population Survey.

This shows how contradictory UN reports are; while at the same time such stories lack logic shreds of evidence to support the accusations. And yet UN remains silent about atrocities in Galkayo, Kismayo, Mogadishu, Baidabo, Hiiraan and other war zone regions of Somalia. While, on the other hand, UN reports completely overlooked the democratic success of Somaliland – the peaceful power transfers, the certain freedoms of speech unlike other countries of Africa and the needs of economic development assistance.

Nevertheless, my country, Somaliland informs the 193 member states of the United Nations that Somaliland is guided by the reality of self-determination of its people as an independent sovereign state. The people of Somaliland overwhelmingly decided to end the voluntary union with Somalia in 1991, which began in 1960 soon after when Somaliland gained its independence from Great Britain. Once again, the decision was endorsed enormously in a referendum by the people of Somaliland in 2001 in a percentage of 97.7%.

Therefore, the governments and people of Somaliland are ready to make Somaliland the heart of regional peace, development and democracy. Again, the fundamental basis of Somaliland is peace, democracy, freedom, the rule of law and self-liberty, and we preach to all nations of the world that Somaliland will stand for those values and principles. Due to the dynamic nature of the international system and the foreign relations of the different countries of the world, we are welcoming a real newfangled collaboration between Somaliland and the international community to be further developed, bringing our higher priority of securing international recognition for Somaliland at the heart of our foreign policy.


Mohamed Hagi Mohamoud

Political Analyst and Socio-economic Researcher on International Development and Security Studies


Continue Reading
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


Farmajo: Clapping Without Crowd




The state is one of the international legal personalities which has its own elements that determines whether it is a real or artificial. In international law, the state should have a defined territory, a permanent population, has the capacity to enter into relations with others, and a government which has the capacity to control the territory it claims and provide services to its citizens.

The political scientists both classical and contemporary agreed that sovereignty is an integral part of the state and regard it as the engine room of the post-Westphalia Peace Agreement statehood. This concept has two distinct dimensions: internal and external. A range of elements determines the internal, therefore, the state should have the capacity to govern the state, make laws, provide social services and security to the citizens, and have an authority in the territory it claims. Providing those services to the citizens’ at large lead the citizens endorse and trust to the state institutions, thus ensures state legitimacy, and this in return legitimizes the internal sovereignty of the state. In a broader sense, the internal sovereignty stems from the consent of the state citizens.

Not similar to the internal, external sovereignty in international law relates to two crucial factors: the recognition which is the practices of the modern states to formally recognize each other through diplomatic means and also equality within the states in the international system, respect of other states, and policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of the other states.

Having this in mind, does Somalia has the legal claim as a genuine state let alone its foreign-imposed governments, in accordance with the above elements of the state. Does Somalia has the internal sovereignty with the assent of the Somali citizens, or does it has the external sovereignty. If the latter does exist, is it real or artificial in connection with the existing condition in the entire Somalia regions, the Somalia Italian Trusteeship?

From the ‘provisional government’ of Ali Mahdi in 1991 to ‘Salballaadh’ of Aideed in 1994, Abdikasim in 2000, Abdullahi Yusuf in 2004, Sheikh Sharif in 2009, Hassan Sheikh Mohamoud in 2012, and the recent Farmajo government in 2017. All these ‘governments’ have had and still has an illusion claiming as genuine governments representing the will of the Somali citizens.

These claims are entirely baseless fabricated by foreign actors which are beneficial to the protracted state collapse in the south. In Mogadishu for instance, the federal government has no physical presence at all as it resides only in a small highly secured area protected by Amisom. The question arises here is: does Farmajo aware what is going on in Halane, neighborhood of Villa Somalia, which is in contrary to the security and sovereignty of the Somali people, does he also aware what is going on in Balli Doogle, before he talk about other regions and towns in the south–central Somalia. These two military bases are neither in the control of the Somalia’s ‘government’ nor under the jurisdiction of their ‘authority’.

Not only in Halane and Balli Doogle, but also Balkanization of your state ‘Somalia’ into self-governing states by competing interests both from the region and beyond are undeniable facts. Doubly important, there are growing numbers of autonomous regions which claim independent administrations from the ‘federal government’ in Mogadishu, with the support of foreign governments. These regional states, including Puntland, Galmudug, Hirshabelle, Jubbaland, and the Southwest State of Somalia claim greater autonomy within the ‘Somalia’ state territory. The real Somali citizens believe that these multiple administrations in the name of federalism have not only contributed its part in endangering the existence of your state, but also derail the efforts to establish long-lasting peace and state institutions in ‘Somalia’. Do you agree Mr. Farmajo?

In contrast to this chaos in Somalia, Somaliland was known as the British Somaliland Protectorate approximately for 80 years before its merger with the Italian colony. The aim of this blinded union was a part of the Greater Somalia Ambition in which most of the Somali people anticipated. In 1991, Somaliland declared its withdrawal from the unjust union of the 1960 for political, social and economic reasons. The euphoria of the citizens who were enthusiastic about the birth of an independent, inclusive Somali State in the 1960, their exhilaration has quickly dissipated as the south occupy all state institutions without considering Somaliland as an independent state which united with the south just to realize the Greater Somalia Agenda.

The unjust practices of the Somalia’s southern-led governments (1960–1991) is as clear as the daylight. In his book “Search for a New Somali Identity” (2002), Hussein Ali Dualeh stated that since the independence in 1960, Somalia has got a total aid of 4.482 billion dollars, for 148 projects. Barefacedly, 139 projects went to the south, while only 9 projects went to Somaliland. In other words, the people of Somaliland got 142 million dollars, out of a development aid of about 4.4 billion dollars. In support of the Dualeh’s argument, I have the list of all projects, including the project name, the place where the project was implemented, and the amount allocated in each project.

This kind of practice and thinking of the Somalia decision-making circles made Somaliland citizens to become hostile to the Somali state institutions till it ceased to exist as a state in 1991. Given the emphasis on this argument, the unjust distribution of power and national resources between the two (British Somaliland Protectorate and Italian Trusteeship in Somalia), remains the source of the Somalia’s conflicts and the protracted civil war and its subsequent disintegration of the state. Do you agree Mr. Farmajo?

In spite of all difficulties, in the post-1991 period, Somaliland has managed to build its own state institutions without an international engagement, has a full control into its territory, and later transitioned the country from elders appointed to popularly elected presidents. Somaliland’s road to democracy and multi-party politics is an outcome of Somaliland’s successful political reconciliation, reconstruction of its economic infrastructures and the subsequent well-built state institutions. Somaliland is an island of peace and stability surrounded by a violent and a volatile region. Do you agree Mr. Farmajo?

Certainly, Somalia’s statehood is uncertain, let alone its floating ‘government’, which isn’t in control of about 1km2 in its capital. The concrete evidences acquired from the Somaliland indigenous peace and state building endeavors affirm that building governance institutions and security mechanisms work best when the people at the grassroots are part of the process, and thus elect and rally behind their leader without international interference. But nothing would work if the leader is clapping without crowd as the current situation of the Farmajo clearly states. Farmajo’s ‘government’ is just nominal and is anti-thesis of the Somalia peace and reconciliation efforts as it isn’t a genuine government representing the will and interest of the entire territory of the former Italian Trusteeship in Somalia.

Despite the illusion of the Somalia politicians, since 1991, Somalia remains in what John Burnett described in his book “where soldiers fear to tread” (2005), as a shambles, torn apart by more than [two] decades of lawlessness and near-classic anarchy. It is the only nation without some form of central government, and it is considered still to be one of the most dangerous places on earth.



The opinion expressed here does not necessarily reflect to any institution rather it is my personal view and impression


Nasir M. Ali

Hargeisa, Somaliland


Continue Reading


The honor of Abaarso School, its Owners, its Foreign Teachers, its Muslim Students and their Parents Should not be Violated




The honor of Abaarso School, its Owners, its Foreign Teachers, its Muslim Students and their Parents Should not be Violated and Deserves Protection by the Somaliland Government and its People!

A gentleman whose name I won’t bother to mention here, has been consistently spreading nasty rumors about the founder, the foreign teachers, and the students of Abaarso School. These accusations have been going on for some time now. They are made on the basis of some YouTube videos and pictures whereby some few girl graduates of the Abaarso School are seen not wearing proper hijab.

The reason that I have felt it necessary for me to come out and speak against these nasty accusations is that I myself, because of being somehow indirectly associated with the “Abaarso” brand name, I’ve been having questions thrown at me concerning these accusations.

My big disappointment is to see many of you Somalilanders not only accepting and believing these stories without bothering to check the facts, but also, not standing up against them! My guess is that the reason you believe these stories is that the person making them is using the name of Islam to make his accusations. And yet the accusations of this gentleman violate not only the honor of the founder and the foreign teachers of the school, but more so that of the Muslim students and their parents! In Islam the honor of a Muslim deserves protection and cannot be violated, especially so on the basis of what the eye sees or the ear hears through the media and electronic devices.

The Shari’ah has the highest standards of verification when it comes to making accusations. Everyone, including this gentleman is subject to these Shari’ah obligations.

Allah says: قُلْ هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ “Qul hatu burhanakum in kuntum sadiqeen.” “Say: Give us your proof and demonstration if you speak truth!” (Q. 2:111).

A video or a photo does not constitute proof in the Shari’ah, you need to bring four eye-witnesses to prove your accusations. Otherwise, the person making accusations will be lashed or flogged for libel (qazf) and sent on his way and marked as a FASIQ. Spreading fitnah, character assassination and being a false witness (Shahadat az-zur) are part of the gravest sins (Kaba’ir) in Islam, next to shirk, murder and treachery.

Therefore, from an Islamic perspective, this gentleman has the obligation to produce for us four groups of witnesses to prove his accusations against the school, as follows:

  • Witnesses from the Somaliland Ministry of Education inspectors, who always do checks on the school,
  • Witnesses from the hundreds of parents who have enrolled their kids in this school ever since it started, telling us if they have ever noticed abnormal behavior from their kids who attend the school,
  • Witnesses from the real, bonafide students of the school and not some dropouts, and finally
  • Witnesses from the local community where the school is based, – concerning its impact etc.
  • Historical Perspective

The owner and faculty of Abaarso School have moved thousands of kilometers from across the world to assist our Somali and Muslim children, and on top of that the owner had had to donate a half million dollars of his own money to start the school. One would think that Somalis would embrace them for all this effort and sacrifice or at least leave them alone to do their work.

Unfortunately, some unethical individuals instead have been consistently trying to undermine their efforts since the inception of the school. All kinds of hideous things continue to be said and written about them and the school, often from people who’ve never even met them and have only heard false rumors. The students of the school often go home and have people who know nothing but rumors tell them that the school is training them to be Jewish and Christian missionaries! I’ve even heard that at one time it got so bad that on one website someone wrote, “If we kill a few of them then the rest will go home.”

Notwithstanding all the above, we see the huge positive impact the school is making. At this point, and in a short span of less than 10 years, Abaarso students have earned scholarships to Harvard, MIT, Amherst, Georgetown, Carnegie Melon, and numerous other great universities. Harvard is perhaps the most famous university in the world, MIT is the top engineering school, Amherst is often ranked in the top few liberal arts colleges, Georgetown top for foreign service, and Carnegie Melon best in computers. Getting accepted to these schools is quite an achievement for Somali kids growing up in Somaliland without foreign citizenships. In total, the school now has approximately 100 students continuing their education internationally, the vast majority in the US. Other countries the school’s students are studying in include Japan, China, Germany, Qatar, S. Africa, Kenya, and Costa Rica.

Somalilanders must understand that Abaarso is doing a great service to their society and that those spreading these rumors are doing so for their own selfish motivations. You also need to understand that that the owner donated a half million dollars of his personal wealth, and to establish that school and get it running he had to work 90 hours each week without any pay, for nothing more than the good of the school and its students. You also need to understand that Abaarso teachers work long days and they only receive volunteer salaries. Most of all, you need to understand that Somali children are getting a world-class education, not only academically, but also in how to be good human beings. The values that Abaarso teaches are consistent with the Islamic religion and culture. Abaarso students volunteer to teach at the Hargeisa Orphanage 3 days per week and operate a school for the local children in Abaarso Village 5 days per week.

Around the world, for your child to get an education like the one at Abaarso you’d need to pay fees in the region of $20,000 or more per student per year. But Abaarso school offers this education at under 10% of that cost. This is because the teachers essentially donate their time and in a way, they are the largest donors to the school, because they bring in their donation not in form of money but rather in work.

Finally, many Somalis don’t know this, but Abaarso has students from every region of Somaliland as well as a number of students from Somalia. Students from Mogadishu and Puntland have been welcomed into the school and are treated with the respect they deserve.

So, instead of believing these kinds of stories, we should rather be asking those who spread them what is it of great impact have they contributed to Somali society and the Ummah so far?


Written By:

Mwalim Juma Imran

Continue Reading


The Aggression of Federal Somalia against Somaliland Republic




On the dawn of May 15 and 24, 2018, the armed forces of Federal Somalia waged unexpected attacks on Somaliland Republic armed forces based at Tuka-raq, which is 65 Km within Somaliland border. Somalia’s forces attacked through the front of Puntland Administration of Federal Somalia whilst the Somaliland Republic was busy celebrating its 27th anniversary of regaining its independence from Somalia achieved on June 26, 1960. Somaliland forces repelled both attacks and inflicted heavy losses on the invading enemy forces.

The land of Harti People in Sool and Eastern Sanaag is located within Somaliland British colonial borders. It is integral and inseparable part of independent Somaliland. Thus, there is no “disputed land or territories” in Somaliland as some may claim preposterously. Somaliland does not accept the idea of “disputed land in Somaliland” as any other African country would not accept to call part of its territory “disputed land”.

Puntland Administration of Federal Somalia dreams to reunite Harti people, sub-clan of Darod, of Somaliland, Somalia, and Ethiopia to create Harti country in the Horn of Africa. Would the United Nations or Africa accept to create Fulani country by reuniting the Fulanis of Mali, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, and Cameroon or Tuareg country by reuniting the Tuaregs of Senegal, Nigeria, Mali, and Niger? The answer is: No. likewise, Africa would never accept that the Puntland Administration of Federal Somalia reunites Hartis of Somaliland, Somalia, and Ethiopia to create a tribal crisis in the Horn of Africa. There is no country in Africa or in any other continent whose population is based on single clan or lineage as Puntland Administration of Somalia claims blindly.

If the United Nations or Organization of African Union do not respect and recognize Somaliland borders, emerging from colonial borders as any other African country, then the territorial integrity of each African country would be questionable and would be at risk of dispute and continental disintegration through endless clan wars.

The political map of Africa that shows its independent countries had not been made by United Nations, by African Union, or by African nations. It is the result of the European Colonial Occupation that invaded African Continent at the end of the 19th century and divided it up into territories with colonial borders for their own political sphere of influence.  When leaving Africa, mainly in the 1960s, the Europeans based the independence and diplomatic recognition of all African emerging countries including Somaliland on their colonial borders inherited from the colonial powers. The borders of African independent states had been drawn by the colonial powers of Europe at the end of the 19th century, mainly during The Partition of Africa held in Berlin in 1884. Likewise, all the current borders of Asia and South America also emerged from colonial borders drawn mainly by Britain, France, and Spain and were all recognized too on their colonial borders.

Somaliland is located in the Horn of Africa. It lies between the 08°00′ – 11°30′ parallel North of the Equator and between 42°30′ – 49°00′ Meridian East of Greenwich. It is bordered by the Red Sea to the North, Djibouti to the West, Ethiopia to the South, and Somalia to the East. Somaliland has a coastline with the majority lying along the Gulf of Aden (Red Sea). The country is slightly larger than England, with an area of 137, 600 km² (53,100 sq. miles) and with a population around 4 million.

According to the unique history of the continent of Africa, an African country is recognized as an independent nation when it meets or fulfills the following four (4) requirements:

  1. That it is colonized separately
    2. That it has its own colonial borders
    3. That it had an official proclamation of independence granted by the colonizing power on specific date
  2. That it Fulfills the Montevideo Convention Requirements on the Rights and Duties of States held on December 26, 1933, which stated that the state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications:

. a permanent population.
. a defined country
. a government
. a capacity to enter into relations with the other states.

Somaliland has perfectly fulfilled the four required conditions to be recognized as an independent country and that is why it was recognized on June 26, 1960, by the United Nations and many countries of the international community

The borders of Somalia, Somaliland, Djibouti or any other Africa country have the same international status and legitimacy because they all had been drawn by European Colonial powers. Anyone who opposes the legitimacy of Somaliland borders, its statehood, its independence, and its diplomatic recognition is challenging the borders and sovereignty of all African independent states (54 states) whose borders also rose from their colonial borders.
African borders are based on land only and not on lineage or clans. There are no clan borders or clan states in Africa or anywhere else in this world. There are only national land-based borders in Africa whose nations consist of many tribes or clans that share common borders and sovereignty.

The following African clans clearly show of how same African clans are distributed over different countries. The inhabitance or residence of some African clans is as follows:

Fulani Clan: This clan inhabits in Mali, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroon etc.
Tuareg Clan: This clan has inhabitance in Senegal, Nigeria, Mali, Niger etc.
Lunda Clan: This clan inhabits in Congo, Zambia, and Angola.
Yoruba Clan: This clan has inhabitance in Nigeria, Benin, and Togo.
Maasai Clan: This clan resides in Kenya, and Tanzania.
Afar Clan: This clan inhabits in Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Djibouti
Gabooye Clan: This clan inhabits in Somaliland, Somalia, Ethiopia
Berber Clan: This clan has inhabitance in Morroco, Tunisia, Libya, Algeria.
Isaaq Clan: This clan inhabits in Somaliland, Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti
Samaroon Clan: This tribe inhabits in Somaliland, Ethiopia, and Djibouti.
Hawiye Clan: This clan inhabits in Somalia, Kenya, and Ethiopia.
Darood Clan: This clan inhabits in Somalia, Somaliland, Kenya, Ethiopia
Rahanwein Clan: This clan has inhabitance in Somalia, Ethiopia, and Kenya.
Essa Clan: This clan inhabits in Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Somaliland.

The internal security, stability, and peace of Africa rest on respecting, recognizing, and implementing its current borders that rose from colonial borders. If an African country would claim the clan and its land located in another African country, the continent would fall to endless devastating, bloody clan wars, violence, and anarchy. The African continent would not exist as we know it today. The peace and stability of African states depend on respecting and recognizing colonial borders. United Nations and African Union should not allow any country like Somalia or any other country to redraw African colonial borders to avoid the danger of plunging the continent into endless clan wars and anarchy.

African Union and African leaders claim that if Somaliland is recognized, it will shift or change the borders of current African independent states inherited from colonial powers leading to instability and political unrest in Africa. If that claim were true, why did not the recognition of South Sudan and Eritrea change the borders of Africa and cause instability and political unrest in African continent? Senegal and Gambia founded federation or union in February 1982 calling it

Senegambia. That union was dissolved in September 1989 after a disagreement and each country regained its original independence and diplomatic recognition without changing the borders of Africa. So, why denying Somaliland of regaining that independence and recognition it had before the union with Somalia? Somaliland diplomatic recognition does not need any approval from Somalia as any other African country did not need the approval of its independence and diplomatic recognition from any other African country.

Somaliland is not a secessionist or breakaway region from Somalia but Somaliland just withdrew from the union with Somalia after Somalia grossly violated the union and committed injustices and atrocities in Somaliland between 1960-1991. If Nyanza Province of Kenya, or Arusha Region of Tanzania, or Puntland province of Somalia break away from their own respective countries, that

would be secessionists, separatists, or breakaways and that would change or shift the colonial borders of Africa inherited from colonial powers and that would create instability and political unrest in the continent of Africa because these provinces share a history and colonial borders with their own countries.

The declaration of Organization of African Unity (O.A.U) in 1964 on African Borders was the formal acceptance of the existing colonial borders inherited from colonial powers on which independence and recognition of each African country were based including Somaliland. That declaration had nothing to do with unification, federations, and unions between two or more African countries like the failed union between Somaliland and Somalia formed unthoughtfully and hastily in 1960. A union or federation could be dissolved anytime if the sides disagree each restoring and retaining its original independence and borders. That declaration reinforces the rightful claim of Somaliland to be recognized as an independent nation based on its colonial borders. That declaration does not prevent Somaliland from withdrawing from the union with Somalia and restoring its independence and diplomatic recognition achieved on June 26, 1960. If Uganda and Kenya share union today and after some time they disagree and dissolve that union, each would still be independent, recognized nation on its own colonial borders

Somaliland and Somalia are not the first two countries in this world whose union dissolved or ceased to exist. The Soviet Union that had 15 Socialist Republics created by the Bolshevik Revolution led by Lenin in 1917 broke up after social upheavals and political discontent ended its existence peacefully in 1989 with new countries emerging from it such as Georgia, Ukraine, Armenia, Uzbekistan, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia etc. They are all recognized by the UN and the international community on the basis of their original borders existing before the union. The Federation of former Republic of Yugoslavia that had 8 countries broke up too after bloody civil wars between 1991-1995 and new countries such as Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo etc. emerged from its ashes. All these countries are also recognized diplomatically too for their original borders existing before the federation. This shows that the unity among countries that share a union is not sacred anymore if they have a disagreement. So, Somaliland Republic deserves international diplomatic recognition based on its British colonial borders.

The United Nations and Africa Union must condemn the aggression of Federal Somalia against the Somaliland Republic on May 15, 2018, to assure the stability and peace of Africa.

Federal Somalia is sternly warned that peace and good neighborly relations between the Somaliland Republic and Federal Somalia will only depend on respecting and recognizing the border between Somaliland and Somalia.



Ibrahim Hassan Gagale


Continue Reading